Many of the picks are not just picking which team will win. Basketball and football include picking ATS (against the spread), which makes Covers.com the closest thing to actually betting on sports on this list.
Covers.com is a sports betting information website that runs a free streak style contest with a top prize of $100,000. If you get it wrong, your streak resets to zero. My longest streak was seven in a row and my girlfriend had 11 in a row during basketball season. It doesn’t take a lot of time and it is a contest that a smart sports fan has a reasonable shot at winning. If you get your pick correct, your streak goes up. Each day you can make one pick from a list of games that Covers.com chooses. You do not have to pick everyday, but you must pick once every six days to keep your streak alive.
Only having the option of picking one game a day makes this contest one of my favorites. We have found that during basketball season it was much easier to find a good pick than it has been during baseball season.
The ultimate goal is to build a streak of 24 correct picks for the overall grand prize of $100,000. See the table to the right for a breakdown of the prizes.. Other prizes are available for smaller streaks
The spread, or line, is a number assigned by the bookmakers which handicaps one team and favors another. Only Rose has yet to be reinstated.
Joseph J. In addition, on August 2010, he facilitated betting by placing odds for matches and had links for placing bets.
5 Famous betting scandals
6 See also
9 External links
1 Types of bets
1.1 United States of America
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sports betting is the activity of predicting sports results and placing a wager on the outcome. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ “How Hansie Cronje became most infamous villain in cricket’s fixing scandals”. In totalizators (sometimes called flexible-rate bets) the odds are changing in real-time according to the share of total exchange each of the possible outcomes have received taking into account the return rate of the bookmaker offering the bet. The frequency of sports bet upon varies by culture, with the vast majority of bets being placed on Association Football (Soccer), American Football, Basketball, Baseball, Hockey, Mixed Martial Arts, and Boxing at both the amateur and professional levels. Martin’s Press ISBN 1-57954-927-6
Thompson, William (2001). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ “No sport easier to fix than tennis”. Although the common stereotype is that these bookies were of Italian descent, many leading bookies were of eastern European ancestry.
Odds for different outcomes in single bet are presented either in European format (decimal odds), UK format (fractional odds), or American format (moneyline odds). The Federal Wire Act of 1961 was an attempt by the US government to prevent illegal bookmaking. However, this Act does not apply to other types of online gambling. The Supreme Court has not ruled on the meaning of the Federal Wire Act as it pertains to online gambling.
Types of Supporter
^ “18 USC Ch. A teaser allows the bettor to combine his bets on two or more different games. Dr. Krista Jenkins, director of the poll commented; “Although support is not overwhelming, these numbers suggest the public is cautiously behind the goal of moving forward with legalized sports betting.”
In 1919, the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in the World Series. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
In Asian betting markets, other frequently used formats for expressing odds include Hong Kong, Malaysian, and Indonesian-style odds formats. Voters were asked whether New Jersey should allow sports betting even if federal law prevents it from doing so, or wait to allow sports betting until federal law permits it. These are wagers offered as alternatives to straight-up/moneyline prices in baseball, hockey, or soccer, respectively. In the above example, if the bettor chose Miami, he would subtract 3 points from Miami’s final score and compare that to Oklahoma City’s final score. The PublicMind’s 2010 national survey found that 67% of Americans did not support the legalization of Internet betting websites in the United States whereas 21% said they would support legalization. The National Football League is fully against any sort of legalization of sports betting, strongly protesting it as to not bring corruption into the game. This bet is placed only at halftime of a particular sporting event. The NCAA has threatened to ban all playoff games in Delaware if the state allows betting on college sports. New Jersey, which is also interested, has been similarly threatened.
The majority of legal sportsbooks are found online, operated over the internet from jurisdictions separate from the clients they serve, usually to get around various gambling laws (such as the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 in the United States) in select markets, such as Las Vegas, Nevada, or on gambling cruises through self-serve kiosks. For example: If the bookmakers return percentage is 90%, 90% of the amount placed on the winning result will be given back to bettors and 10% goes to the bookmaker. Before game 5 of the 2012 NBA Finals, the Miami Heat were expected to beat the Oklahoma City Thunder. ABC News.
^ a b Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind, (December 19, 2011). The resulting bet that is placed is won or lost only on the points scored by both teams in the second half only.
In-play betting. To attempt to make wagering on the underdog desirable, the bookmaker will give them points. This is the most common type of bet in sports.
Proposition bets are wagers made on a very specific outcome of a match. Successful bookmakers must be able to withstand a large short term loss. These bets feature a fixed point spread that (usually) offers a higher payout for the favorite and a lower payout for the underdog (both in comparison to the moneyline).
Future wagers. Just as many voters approved (42%) as opposed (42%) allowing sports betting. Results showed that nearly half (45%) of voters wanted to allow sports betting, while (38%) decided to wait and allow sports betting once Congress allows it. Sports Betting, Sure Thing; Internet Betting, Nyet! (press release)
^ Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind, (April 20, 2009). A 2nd half (Second half) bet is also sometimes called a halftime bet. Moves Towards Legal Sports Betting This Fall, in Time for NFL Season”. To determine who wins against the spread, the line is either added or subtracted from a team’s final score. Woolley, professor of political science and director of the poll commented on the findings, “Gambling has become, for good or ill, a national industry, and you can bet that politicians and casinos all over the country are closely following New Jersey’s plans.” In a different study released by FDU’s PublicMind in October 2011, results showed that New Jersey voters thought legalizing sports betting in New Jersey was a good idea. American Gaming Association.
^ ABC News. Betting the Line Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Press ISBN 0-8142-0880-0
Finley, Peter (2008). However, nearly two-thirds (66%) of voters were not aware of the upcoming statewide referendum on the issue. UK format (fractional odds) are used by British bookmakers. 55 Austrian tennis player, Daniel Koellerer, became the first tennis player to be banned for life for attempting to fix matches. Sports betting can also extend to non-athletic events, such as reality show contests and political elections, and non-human contests such as Horse Racing, Greyhound Racing and illegal, underground Dog Fighting.
The bookmaker functions as a market maker for sports wagers, most of which have a binary outcome: a team either wins or loses. Fractional odds of 1/1 are an even bet. The National Law Review. As always, a lot depends on who actually shows up to vote.” In February 2011 FDU’s PublicMind released a poll which showed that half (55%) of voters agreed “that people bet on sports games anyway, so government should allow it and tax it.” On the other hand, approximately (37%) of New Jersey voters concurred that betting on sports is “a bad idea because it promotes too much gambling and can corrupt sports.” Again, by a significant margin (70%-26%) that voters who already engage in sports betting in office pools tend to be more supportive of legal sports betting than other voters. Donald Hoover, FDU professor in International School of Hospitality and Tourism Management and former casino executive commented on the results; “Betting on sports is not an uncommon practice for many New Jerseyans, but for the most part, the state doesn’t supervise it, doesn’t tax it and doesn’t take any revenue from it.” In 2010 a national poll, results showed that voters opposed sports betting in all states by a margin of 53-39. Woolley commented: “But…younger voters… If any of the four bets fails to cover, the bettor loses the parlay, but if all four bets win, the bettor receives a substantially higher payout (usually 10-1 in the case of a four-teamer) than if he made the four wagers separately.
Progressive parlays. For example, a bettor could include four different wagers in a four-team parlay, whereby he is wagering that all four bets will win. 26 May 2010. “Sports News”. are far less likely to vote than other voters… For him to win his bet, Miami would have to win the game by 4 points or more. (For instance, Mickey Mantle and Willie Mays were both banned from baseball in 1983 after taking jobs as casino greeters (which would have expelled them from the Hall of Fame had it been allowed to stand); they were reinstated two years later. This creates a number of other criminal elements, thus furthering their illegality.
1 in 1.5 = 67%
1 in 2 = 50%
1 in 2.5 = 40%
1 in 3 = 33%
x-1, then convert to fraction
100*(x-1) if x>2; -100/(x-1) if x<2
divide fraction, then x+1
divide fraction, then 100*x if x>=1; -100/x if x<1
(x/100)+1 if x>0; (-100/x)+1 if x<0
x/100, if x>0; -100/x, if x<0
x if x>=1; (1/x)*-1 if x<1
x if x<=1; (1/x)*-1 if x>1
Philosophy of sport
Racism in sport
Moneyline bets do not have a spread or handicap. Illegal bookies, due to the nature of their business, can operate literally anywhere but only require money from losing bettors, creating the possibility of debt to the bookie from the bettor. It must also be noted that both bookmakers use other methods to increase profits by enticing bettors with greater winnings at higher risk to the bettor (teasers, parlays, adjusting point spreads, etc.).
Collegiate sport rituals
Betting on the Favorite, an 1870 engraving published in Harper’s Weekly
The rule against gambling in baseball is known as “Rule 21,” which is publicly posted on dugout walls and states: “Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever on any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.” People permanently banned from Major League Baseball are also forever banned from entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame, although most such people have been reinstated a few years later by a later Commissioner of Baseball. Gambling in America–An Encyclopedia of History, Issues, and Society Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO ISBN 1-57607-159-6
Media related to Sports betting at Wikimedia Commons
The Cronje Affair was an India-South Africa Cricket match fixing scandal that went public in 2000. It began in 1996 when the-then captain of the South African national cricket team, Hansie Cronje, was convinced by Mukesh “John” Gupta, an Indian bookmaker, to throw a match during a Test in Kanpur, India. According to the Telegraph in 2010, Cronje was paid off a total of £65,000 from Gupta.
In the United States of America, it is illegal to operate a betting scheme, except in Nevada, Oregon, Delaware, and Montana. In many European nations, bookmaking (the profession of accepting sports wagers) is regulated but not criminalized. US Public: Keep Las Vegas in Las Vegas (press release)
^ Coffey, Sarah (May 25, 2012). US odds of 100 are an even bet.
A 1906 betting scandal between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogs, two of the top teams in professional American football in the early 1900s, led to the demise of “big-money” professional football for several years. Modern research has suggested that the claims of betting were unsubstantiated.
Association football culture
Australian rules football culture
The probability implied by the odds should be greater than the true probability for each possible outcome to guarantee positive expected profit.
If the wagers on each outcome are made in ratio to the implied odds, then the bookmaker is guaranteed a profit (balanced book).
Sports bettors place their wagers either legally, through a bookmaker/sportsbook, or illegally through privately run enterprises referred to as “bookies”. This bet can be placed on the spread(Line) or over/under. The bettor can adjust the point spreads for the two games, but must get all the games correct to win and recognizes a lower return in comparison to parlays.
If bets. 9.
^ “Sports Betting”. They are the ratio of the amount won to the stake – the solidus “/” is pronounced “to” for example 7/1 “seven to one”. Many of the illegal proceeds also allegedly go to fund terror, drugs and other illegal activities.
Interestingly for New Jersey, in a national poll released in December 2011, Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind asked voters whether they “support or oppose changing the federal law to allow sports betting” in their respective states. By the beginning of the third quarter, notorious Vegas bookmaker Frank Rosenthal received forfeiture notices from 246 San Francisco bettors totaling more than $25,000 in premature winnings. This is similar to parimutuel wagering in horse racing and dog racing.
2nd half bets. Woolley commented on the results: “If some states allow sports betting and profit by it, other states will want to follow.” Yet by December 2011 after NJ passed its sports betting referendum the national measure shifted to 42-42. In January 2012, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie signed legislation allowing sports betting in New Jersey after it was approved in a nonbinding voter referendum in 2011 and he announced on May 24, 2012 that he plans to go ahead and set up a system of wagering at the state’s racetracks and casinos this fall, before the National Football League season ends.
Sporting man culture
Friendly political wager
Sports betting systems
Statistical association football predictions
North American sports
In 2012, despite federal law preventions, the state legislature of New Jersey and Governor Chris Christie signed a law that would allow sports betting to take place in New Jersey race tracks and Atlantic City casinos. In August 2012, Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind conducted a study on the issue. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
^ “Daniel Koellerer banned for life”. Odds for such a bet generally are expressed in a ratio of units paid to unit wagered. A progressive parlay involves multiple bets (usually up to 12) and rewards successful bettors with a large payout, though not as large as normal parlays. While all sports wagers are by definition on future events, bets listed as “futures” generally have a long-term horizon measured in weeks or months; for example, a bet that a certain NFL team will win the Super Bowl for the upcoming season. The favoured team pays lower odds than does the underdog.
Spread betting are wagers that are made against the spread. Such a bet must be made before the season starts in September, and winning bets will not pay off until the conclusion of the Super Bowl in January or February (although many of the losing bets will be clear well before then and can be closed out by the book). Opinion divided, but majority give the state the green light to allow sports betting in defiance of federal law (press release)
^ Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind Poll “US Public: Keep Las Vegas in Las Vegas” press release (March 2010)
^ Shriver, Roger. In these bets, bettor predicts competitors results against each other and not on the overall result of the event. Expected Values and variance in bookmaker payouts: A Theoretical Approach towards setting limits on odds. The many types of bets include:
Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sports_betting&oldid=736909018″
In areas where sports betting is illegal, bettors usually make their sports wagers with illicit bookmakers (known colloquially as “bookies”) and on the Internet, where thousands of online bookmakers accept wagers on sporting events around the world. This series would go down as one of the biggest sports scandals of all time. 1. US format odds are the amount won on a 100 stake when positive and the stake needed to win 100 when negative. NJ Voters Favor Sports Betting, but not Tax Credits for Meadowlands Developer (press release)
^ Cortis, Dominic (2015). Decimal odds of 2.00 are an even bet. The team wagered upon might be 50-1 to win the Super Bowl, which means that the bet will pay 50 times the amount wagered if the team does so. One example are Formula One races, where you bet on two or three drivers and their placement among the others. My Prison Without Bars St. In addition, there was a significant gender split: a majority of men approved of the idea by a wide margin (65-21), while only 39% of women approved and 41% opposed. The October results were stable, reflecting an earlier poll in April 2011 where New Jersey voters approved the legalization of sports betting in the state by a margin of 53%-30%. The bookmaker accepts both wagers, and maintains a spread (the vigorish) which will ensure a profit regardless of the outcome of the wager. In general, most sportsbooks will prefer this type of wager due to the low win-probability, and also the longer period of time in which the house holds the player’s money while the bet is pending.
Head-to-Head. 31 May 2011. In 2004 and 2006, Koellerer was banned for six months due to his bad behavior. Gambling Technology Washington, DC: FBI Laboratory
Boyd, Kier (1981). European format (decimal odds) are used in continental Europe, Canada, and Australia. 50: GAMBLING”. Sometimes you can also bet a “tie”, in which one or both drivers either have the same time, drop out, or get disqualified.
Totalizators. An if bet consists of at least two straight bets joined together by an if clause which determines the wager process. All eight players were banned from playing professional baseball for the rest of their lives.Pete Rose, the all-time MLB leader in hits, was similarly banned from baseball in 1989 for betting on games while he was a MLB manager.
Corruption in tennis has been long considered as issue. In 2011, the former world No. The violations were outstanding between October 2009 and July 2010 after The Tennis Integrity Units had launched an investigation on behalf of the International Tennis Federation and the ATP and WTA tours. On the other hand, the CEO of the International Cricket Council believe sports betting, in particular in India, should be legalized to curb illegal bookies where match fixing has occurred from nontransparent bookmakers. As the story goes, professional gambler Joseph Sullivan paid eight members of the White Sox (The players involved were Oscar Felsch, Arnold Gandil, Shoeless Joe Jackson, Fred McMullin, Charles Risberg, George Weaver, and Claude Williams) around 10,000 dollars each to fix the World Series. Legal sportsbooks take vigorish from bettors of both teams, paying a winning bettor a little under 2/1 in an even contest. Rosenthal was able to retain these winnings despite the final outcome of the game due to gambling regulations previously established by the NAGRA.
Odds. They take bets “up-front”, meaning the bettor must pay the sportsbook before placing the bet.
Bookmakers usually hold an 11-10 advantage over their customers–for small wagers it is closer to a 6-5 advantage–so the bookmaker will most likely survive over the long term. Naturally the more money bet on a certain result, the smaller the odds on that outcome become. The scheme was discovered when Delhi police recorded illegal dealings between Indian bookmaker Sanjay Chawla and Cronje. They were often descendants of the influx of immigrants coming into the USA at this time. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
^ Rob Tornoe, for NewsWorks (17 August 2012). 12 June 2013. The line read: Miami -3, Oklahoma City +3. However, in a progressive parlay, unlike a regular parlay, a reduced payout will still be made even should some of the bets lose.
Teasers. However, voters who already live in households where family members (including themselves) engage in sports betting had a strongly favored legalization of sports betting (71%-23%), while voters in households where sports betting is not an activity, opposed legalization (46%-36%). Legalized Sports Betting in New Jersey
^ Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind, (March 11, 2010). “Sport” Sullivan was an American bookmaker and gambler from Boston, Massachusetts who helped to initiate the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.
Sportsbetting has resulted in a number of scandals in sport, such as the 1919 World Series, the alleged (and later admitted) illegal gambling of former MLB player Pete Rose, and former NBA referee Tim Donaghy, effecting the integrity of sports events through various acts including “point shaving” (players effecting the score by missing shots), bad calls from officials at key moments, and overall match fixing (“the fix is in”).
Cultures by sport
On December 7, 1980 the San Francisco 49ers overcame a halftime deficit of 28 points in what became the greatest regular season comeback victory in NFL regular season history. “N.J. A Nation of Bettors? (press release)
^ Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMind, (October 10, 2011). They are the ratio of the full payout to the stake, in a decimal format. “NFL and ICC’s Stance on Betting”.
^ Finley, 2008
^ “Famous Cricket Spot-Fixing and Betting Scandals”. Illegal bookies, however, pay the winning bettor even money while making the losing bettor pay the vigorish exclusively. In-play betting is a feature offered by some online sports books that enables bettors to place new bets while a sporting event is in progress.
Main article: Bookmaker
Wagebrokers both legal and illegal make a profit by taking a percentage of all money bet, called a vigorish (vig), juice, rake, or action. Examples include predicting the number of goals each team scores in a handball match, betting whether a player will score in a football game, or wagering that a baseball player on one team will accumulate more hits than another player on the opposing team.
Parlays involve multiple bets (usually up to 12) and will reward a successful bettor with a large payout. Age proved to be a divide: Voters between the ages 18-34 were more likely to approve of sports betting than older voters. Odds are also quite often expressed in terms of implied probability, which corresponds to the probability with which the event in question would need to occur for the bet to be a break-even proposition (on the average).
Davies, Richard (2001). Half of New Jersey voters (52%) said that they approved the idea of legalizing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and racetracks, 31% opposed it. The term book is a reference to the books used by wagebrokers to track wagers, payouts, and debts.
Famous betting scandals
In setting Odds, the bookmaker is subject to a number of limitations:
Aside from simple wagers (for example, betting a friend $20 that one’s favorite baseball team will win its division), sports betting is commonly performed through a bookmaker (bookie) or through various online Internet outlets. If the player’s first selection complies with the condition (clause), then the second selection will have action; if the second selection complies with the condition, then the third selection will have action and so on.
Run line, puck line, or goal line bets. For example, in the NBA, when two teams play each other, one is perceived as being more likely to win. (Boyd, 1981)
Types of bets
See also: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers
United States of America
Many on-line tools also exist for automated conversion between these odds formats.
Many of the leading gambling bookmakers from the 1930s to the 1960s got their start during the prohibition era of the 1920s. Peter J. “Sports betting should be legal in the Garden State”. 19 June 2014
will catch up to the rest of the world and allow it at some point.”
Globally, the business is even more lucrative. To put that into further context, Americans accounted for nearly 10 percent of the entire $33 billion worldwide online gaming market,” Freeman said.
“In sports gambling, it’s about the bet,” DeGaris said. will generate – in addition to tax revenue from the proceeds at casinos – approximately 22,000 new online gambling-related jobs, Freeman testified.
“It’ll be interesting to see how this plays out,” said Laurence DeGaris, associate professor of marketing at the University of Indianapolis and an expert in Internet culture.
Prohibition failed – again
Last month, the president and CEO of the American Gaming Association testified before Congress and urged legislators to repeal their 7-year-old ban on Internet gambling.
Not everyone agrees with the odds. “The technology is rolling out this week.”
Many Americans simply ignored the ban, he noted, as the country did during Prohibition in the ’20s.
Players must be at least 21 years old, and either reside in New Jersey or be in the state when they place their bets. — notably sports betting.
“Those from other states can play, but they cannot wager,” Fenton said. Gov. “The federal government has tried the prohibition approach – specifically the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 and the Wire Act – and through multiple Justice Department crackdowns on offshore operators as well.”
What happens online, stays online
Six other firms, including popular companies like WSOP.com and Ultimate Poker and other casinos like Caesars and the Golden Nugget, participated in the “soft play” launch of online gambling in New Jersey in November, the state’s Department of Gaming Enforcement Director Dave Rebuck said during a recent conference call.
“There will be many games to play online in New Jersey,” Fenton told FoxNews.com. Not just poker.”
But analysts are mostly rolling with Christie and the casinos. That doesn’t translate online,” DeGaris told FoxNews.com. “If we are unable to determine that you are in New Jersey, you will be unable to play on Virgin Casino,” the site notes. They play against the house at Virgin Casino, and they can finance their wagers with debit cards, credit cards, or in person.
‘Last year, before a single state authorized legal online gaming, Americans spent nearly $3 billion.’
“Last year, before a single state authorized legal online gaming, Americans spent nearly $3 billion on illegal, unregulated offshore gaming sites. market could be worth as much as $9 billion in the coming years as other states, including California, legalize online wagering.
“Slots and roulette are very visceral games, lots of bells and whistles. If your phone is off, or if you’re too near state borders, you may not be allowed to play.
Congress banned online gambling in 2006. Others predict the overall U.S. But new laws across the nation are rolling the rules back — and lawmakers think they’re holding a royal flush.
Mega-entrepreneur Richard Branson’s Virgin Group is the latest entry in online gambling, teaming with the Tropicana Resort in Atlantic City and online game maker Gamesys to bring online poker, blackjack and slots to New Jersey this week. “Blackjack, slots. Nevada and Delaware also began offering some online gambling last year, but New Jersey is the first state to “fully” legalize it, said Lee Fenton, the chief operating officer of Gamesys.
Freeman said the Department of Justice has relaxed its views toward online gambling since 2011, and this could open up even more opportunities in the U.S.
“Prohibition simply does not work,” Geoff Freeman told a House panel on Dec. Chris Christie validated the vice in the waning weeks of 2013, saying he hoped to rake in $1 billion in casino revenues this year, of which the state will collect a 17 percent tax.
And New Jersey isn’t alone; eight other states have bills in the works that will allow Internet gambling as well. 10. Virgin could be holding a full house, but it could also fail before the flop.
- Geoff Freeman, president and CEO of the American Gaming Association
To prevent unauthorized access, Virgin Casino physically locates gamers’ cellphones periodically. In online casino gambling, it’s about the game more than the bet.”
Legalizing gambling across the U.S. U.K. “That’s where I see the huge potential in online gambling, and I reckon the U.S. market research firm H2 Gambling Capital, which focuses on the gaming industry, predicted about $300 million for New Jersey’s online casinos — or about $45 million in tax revenue, according to the New York Times. H2 said the industry was worth $33 billion in 2013, with $4.5 billion coming from mobile gambling on iPads, iPhones and smartphones.
. “Blackjack and poker have a very human element that’s lost online
It makes no sense to ask whether a particular individual’s intelligence has been more determined by nature or by nurture. The studies say nothing about how they matter, or which genes matter, but they show quite convincingly that they indeed do matter. Genes matter to the extent that they support parenting, because like any other behavior, parenting behaviors are influenced by the genes. Even though the proliferation of advanced statistical techniques (such as structural equation modeling) and the implementation of additional controls have allayed some of the concerns, they haven’t allayed all of the them.
It’s important to keep in mind that the route from genotype (genetic makeup) to phenotype (observed behavior) is hardly ever clear-cut. The genes and environment eventually become correlated.
Does Heritability Have Any Practicality?
Therefore, when it comes to understanding the development of a trait in a particular person, nature can never be separated from nurture. (2009). The point is that both are always contributing to the development of any trait, and context matters in which accounts for more of the differences in a trait.
Johnson, W., Turkheimer, E., Gottesman, I.I., & Bouchard, T.J., Jr. (2003). This cycle continues to magnify observed ability differences in basketball between those who keep getting opportunities to increase their skills and those who didn’t get picked that first time. The causal route from genes to behavior is often very complex!
In fact, the least heritable features of human nature may be those that appear to be the most genetically determined! Consider the fact that having 5 fingers on each of our hands is not a particularly heritable characteristic (because most finger number variations in humans are attributable not to genetic variation, but to variations in experiences, such as accidents). After all, if everyone were raised in an identical environment, variations in their psychological characteristics couldn’t possibly be accounted for by anything other than variations in their genes (since there would be no variations in their developmental environments); the more variation in environments that twins in twin studies are exposed to, the lower the heritabilities we should expect to find.
Environmental factors influence the development of highly heritable traits just as much as they influence the development of non-heritable traits (i.e. But it is not at all obvious prior to developmental analysis which environmental factors might make important contributions to the development of specific traits, so that approach would leave us measuring a seriously unwieldy number of variables.
Deary, I.J., Penke, L., & Johnson, W. There is reason to believe that under more dire circumstances, the heritability of IQ would be significantly lower than that reported by Bouchard. Among the poorest, the shared environment accounted for most of the differences in IQ (60 percent), and the genes accounted for very little. Genes are the mechanisms of experience.
Heritability Says Nothing About Whether Intelligence Is More Determined By Genes Or The Environment
Twin Studies Do Not Reveal The Causes Of Intellectual Development
Heritability Doesn’t Necessarily Have To Do With Biology
Heritability depends on the amount of variability in the environmental factors that contribute to a trait. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 11, 201-211.
Adoption studies and twin studies do not entail the purposeful manipulation of either specific genes or specific environmental factors. But does this mean that the variable “has a family” doesn’t matter in determining whether or not a person develops the ability to speak a language? Of course not! That’s like saying that water has no influence on a fish’s development because all fish live in water. Furthermore, identical twins reared apart were eerily similar to identical twins reared together on various measures of personality, occupational and leisure-time interests, and social attitudes.
Genes, By Themselves, Can’t Determine Anything
Take the most essential element: a child needs to be raised in a family, almost any kind of family, to develop the ability to speak a language. Nature and nurture are inextricably intertwined, and it’s time for science to figure out how.
Heritability Is Not The Same As Heredity
Heritability does not tell us how likely it is that people’s characteristics will be inherited by their children. The Flynn effect — the dramatic rise in IQ witnessed in the 20th century — is a good example of that. Moore, to list eight facts about genes, twin studies, and the heritability statistic that may come as a surprise to many people — even biologists!
Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., Waldron, M., Onofio, B, & Gottesman, I.I. Hence, such studies are unable to generate satisfying understandings of the factors and processes that contribute to the development of intelligence.
Let’s be clear: Twin studies have received much criticism. The idea here is that environments set off an appetite in the genes that nudges individuals to engage in certain experiences, and the environment then responds in a reciprocal fashion that reinforces an individual’s nature. a trait like height, which is highly heritable in most developed nations, is very affected by environmental factors, like diet). The rich tend to get rich, and the poorer tend to get poorer. You get picked first for the basketball team, whereas your smaller friends may not get picked at all. Therefore, gene-environment interactions are understood to drive the development of all of our characteristics. Science writer Matt Ridley has put it this way:
Moore, D.S.. As Moore puts it in his journal article:
[Genes] are devices for extracting information from the environment. If we then take a baby, newly born to a pair of alcoholic American parents, and raise it in a small village in southern India where it never encounters alcohol across its lifespan, it will not develop alcoholism. Nurture.” New York, NY: Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.
None of the twins in Bouchard’s study were reared in real poverty, were raised by illiterate parents, or were mentally retarded. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of twins reared apart. Genes vary within any group of people (even among the inhabitants of middle-class in Western society), and this variation contributes to variations in these people’s behaviors. Imagine if you were born slightly taller than others (maybe you don’t have to imagine this!). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 217-220.
Heritability Depends Entirely On Context
We hope these eight facts have cleared up some misunderstandings. and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota published a striking finding: About 70 percent of the variance in IQ found in their particular sample of identical twins was found to be associated with genetic variation. Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Since every single person in twin studies checks that box — that is, they are raised in a family of some sort — this factor never varies and thus does not predict differences in ability to speak a language.
Even so, the findings from twin studies should not be understated; it counters many a prevailing belief that we are born into this world as blank slates, completely at the mercy of the external environment. We often talk as if we “inherit” full-blown traits from our parents, like eye colors, nose shapes and shyness. Likewise, as can be seen from the example below, genetic factors influence the development of non-heritable traits just as much as they influence the development of highly heritable traits.
The Actual Heritability Value Simply Does Not Matter
Because the development of behavioral and psychological characteristics can be influenced by experiential factors in ways that are unpredictable from casual observation, we cannot hope to happen to measure — through sheer lucky guesswork — which environmental factors contribute importantly to the development of those characteristics; we first need to understand the mechanisms by which those traits develop.
Parents Matter, And Will Always Matter
In 1990, Thomas J.
Many psychologists continue to compute heritability statistics without questioning what exactly it is that they reveal to us. It’s possible for many traits to involve gene-environment correlations.
The parenting factors that are statistically associated with differences between individuals should never be confused with the parenting factors that cause the development of a trait within an individual.
Turkheimer’s study should also be a reminder that just because something is heritable doesn’t mean it’s immutable. After reading these facts, it might be reasonable to ask, “Does the heritability coefficient have any practical value?”
Twin studies partition the variance in nature and the variance in nurture. Because our psychological characteristics reflect the physical structures of our brains and because our genes contribute to those physical structures, there are unlikely to be any psychological characteristics that are completely unaffected by our DNA. This study points to the fact that estimates of heritability depend on the sample that is studied, and the environment of that sample.
Because heritability is a population statistic, it has nothing to say about the individual. Every minute, every second, the pattern of genes being expressed in your brain changes, often in direct or indirect response to events outside the body. Let’s imagine that a study of alcoholism in the United States finds that the vast majority of the variation in people’s tendencies to drink to excess can be accounted for by variation in their genes. This allows researchers to determine whether differences in genes or differences in the environment in a particular population are associated with more of the differences in observed behavior.
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The fact that both our genes and our environment contribute to who we are and depend on each other is actually quite a good thing! Give too much control to our environment or our genes, and we lose free will. Psychological Science, 14, 623-628.
The heritability of a trait can vary from 0.00 to 1.00, depending on the environments from which research participants are sampled. (2003) The Dependent Gene: The Fallacy of “Nature vs. The way we work gives us choice.
The authors of many twin studies have claimed that the environments experienced by twins (or any two siblings) do little to create differences in intelligence and personality as adults. Bouchard, Jr. The neuroscience of human intelligence differences. Nature and nurture are complementary, not at odds.
Of course, we could just aim to measure all of the environmental factors that might affect the development of a trait. The problem is that our understanding of the factors that contribute to the development of human traits in general — and to IQ in particular — is currently so deficient that we typically do not know if the environmental factors important in the development of a particular trait are stable across testing situations, vary somewhat across those situations, or vary wildly across those situations.
Unfortunately, findings from twin studies are often misunderstood, misinterpreted and blown out of proportion — not just by the media, but even by serious scientists who get their work published. Beyond heritability: Twin studies in behavioral research. A currently active area of research is the study of epigenetics, and how the many interacting genes that make up any trait are differentially activated depending on the environment. Consequently, in this study, the heritability of IQ was reported to be close to zero! Among the richest, however, the heritability of IQ approached what Bouchard found: Variations in the genes accounted for most of the differences in IQ scores, and the shared environment accounted for very little of the variance. To put things in perspective, I teamed up with the well-known developmental psychologist at Pitzer College, David S. Moore has argued that even this is not significant when we realize that the magnitude of any heritability statistic reflects the extent of variation in unidentified non-genetic factors that contribute to the development of the trait in question.
Instead, the crucial environmental factors might remain unmeasured, and consequently, variability of those factors across the new range of environments could easily be very different than the variability of those factors across the environments sampled in the original study.
Even if a population of individuals were to develop in a range of environments believed to be the same as that in which a particular study was conducted, the results of that study would not allow us to predict developmental outcomes in the new range of environments because the environmental factors that the researchers originally focused on — and controlled for — might not be the relevant environmental factors at all.
This raises a deeper point: Depending on what you hold constant, you can either show a genetic contribution or an environmental contribution. Because traits that are 100 percent heritable can nonetheless be strongly influenced by environmental factors, it is not the case that a trait found to be heritable in a particular twin study will be passed from a given pair of parents to their children. Parents matter to the extent that they support the expression of genes.
. Because we know that genes play some role in the development of any trait, the precise heritability estimate doesn’t matter in a practical sense.
It turns out that parenting matters, just in a way different than originally assumed. But all that we actually inherit from our parents are our genes and our genes’ (and our) environments, factors that then construct full-blown traits during development. Genes could “account for” 100 percent of the variability in a trait in a particular twin study, but this does not mean that environmental factors are therefore unimportant in the development of the trait; parents still matter and will always matter.
It’s very easy to imagine how slight genetic predispositions can get magnified through the course of development by the environment. Science, 250, 223-228. Naked DNA (or RNA) is simply not sufficient to produce psychological or biological traits.
Because we cannot assess the variability (across our testing environments) of all the yet-to-be-identified non-genetic factors that influence IQ, Moore argues that estimates of the heritability of IQ are effectively uninterpretable and unable to be applied in any appropriate way. Just because a variable doesn’t vary doesn’t mean it has no causal impact on a particular outcome.
At the very least, heritability tells us how much of the variation in IQ can be accounted for by variation in genetic factors when development occurs in an exquisitely specific range of environments. (1990). This would give you more experience in basketball, which increase the chances you’d get picked first for another team. As already stated, every trait develops through the interplay of genes and the environment. The Flynn effect should be a reminder of just how much the environment matters, even after completely controlling for genes (by looking at IQ changes across generations).
Bouchard’s study, along with many others, has painted a consistent picture: Genes matter. However, David S. Consequently, it doesn’t matter how heritable a trait is; if development of the offspring occurs in a different environment than the parent developed in, most bets are off.
In reality, all biological and psychological characteristics are constructed during development, when genes interact with local environmental factors that can be influenced by the broader environment. Nonetheless, it is quite obvious that genetic factors play a role in determining the number of fingers we have on each of our hands!
In one study, Eric Turkheimer and colleagues studied 320 pairs of 7-year-old twins who were raised in extreme poverty. Unfortunately, careful consideration of these statistics suggests that they might not be applicable in any meaningful way, and so, consequently, are uninteresting at best and misleading at worst.
Because adoption and twin studies that seek to account for trait variation in terms of genetic and environmental variation are always correlational, they reveal nothing about the causes of the appearance of the traits.
Some of the most well-known behavioral geneticists, including Thomas Bouchard, Jr., recognize that it’s time to move beyond heritability estimates. Those who repeatedly don’t get picked for the basketball team may invest in other skills, such as physics or art. (2010). Somehow, this finding translates to the media as “parenting doesn’t matter.” This couldn’t be farther from the truth.
Bouchard, , T.J., Lykken, D.T., McGue, M., Segal, N.L., & Tellegen, A
A winning percentage of 55-percent sure doesn’t sound as sexy as a 60-percent handicapper, but if your volume of plays is high enough, it can certainly be much more profitable.
The only statistic that sports bettors should be concerned with is units won, which is the amount of profit, or loss, they have over time, and not worry nearly as much about winning percentage. And as is the case with the Arkansas-based giant, many times this will be more profitable than being extremely selective and doing a small amount of volume, even if the mark-up is higher.
Making it more difficult for sports bettors is that some sports services will claim to have won 200 units in a particular sport, but don’t mention that they release 10- or 20-unit plays, along with several 100-unit “locks” at the end of the year if things aren’t going so well and they need something to base next year’s advertising on.. For the bettors that do their own handicapping, however, units won is really the only thing you should be concerned with, as that ultimately is going to translate into the bottom line. At the end of the month, the 55-percent handicapper would have gone 83-67 for a gain of 9.3 units, while the 60-percent handicapper would have gone 18-12 for a profit of 4.8 units, so the 55-percent handicapper has made nearly twice as much.
With baseball season coming back in about 4 months, many sports gamblers will be seeing ads from different sports services claiming winning percentages of 65-percent for baseball, and that’s entirely possibly, but what the services aren’t saying is that the majority of their selections were favorites of -200 or more, turning that 65-percent handicapping into a losing proposition.
If somebody were to ask you if you would rather be a 60-percent handicapper or a 55-percent handicapper, which would you choose? The obvious answer is that it’s better to be a 60-percent handicapper, but that isn’t necessarily true.
The 55-percent handicapper is using what is commonly referred to as the Wal-Mart Approach, which is to have a lot of volume with the expectation of grinding out a small profit. In the question above, it would be much better to be a 55-percent handicapper if you were playing 150 games a month, as opposed to a 60-percent handicapper playing one game a day
Racing/simulation games are often one and the same as a hybrid racing game and most online games allow you to customize your vehicle, race, earn cash, gas, and other strategic factors to play their game. The 5 basic game types available online to the web crawler to enjoy are;
MMOG or (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are extremely popular and you can now join for free and play many of them. Games like strip poker, date games and other 3D anime/hentai like games are very popular for the 18+ crowd.
2. First-person Shooter – Battle Forge
Almost all games that are extremely popular have moved from the two dimensional side scrolling action to full 3D, allowing the player to take full advantage of their hardware and play in amazingly rendered environments.
No doubt, the best available online games are the ones that allow minimal personal input from the user and allow free play, unless more participation is accepted and wanted by the user.
Adult/gambling/erotic games are also gaining ground online, as most things in this genre live on the web these days. Some developers realized that there are adults who surf the web and may need a fifteen minute break here and there. These online games are quick and fun to play and are simple yet addicting.
In the multi-billion dollar industry of gaming, online games have a real small place in which to grow, however their presence remains ever expanding and there are always going to be new and fancier games almost daily to locate and play on the expanse known to the world as the “web”. “Battlefield Heroes” is a first person / MMOG game that has evolved to incorporate role-playing and customization to enhance the online experience of the players as well as provide them with a unique online presence.
Gambling games are self explanatory.
An example of an interesting 3d adult online games are hentai games
There are various resources for finding and playing an assortment of online games available to the web crawler today. Games like “Battle forge” and “Battlefield Heroes” for example, allow the players to join and play for free, with “perks” being the addition of customizations purchased from the developers for points, in exchange for money; much like Microsoft’s point system. Any gambling game that allows you to play for an imaginary amount of money is a great site to rid yourself of those gambling urges. Real online gambling can be fun too, however that is another topic that needs its own precautions and safeties.. A great example of a quick and fun online game in many of the above genres including racing and simulation are the games provided to Facebook by Zynga games. Companies are growing ever more aware of the increasing popularity of online gaming seeing that many web users are taking full advantage, playing and entertaining themselves online.
“Battle Forge” is a card based strategy and MMOG game. However not all adult games have to be raunchy and distasteful. These hybrid games are evolving because the niches for a specific brand is small and many players look for as many facets of gaming in one source to enjoy
Life was not always full of glamor and glitz for some of Hollywood’s actresses, actors and singers. From working at gas stations to cleaning chicken coops, these super hot celebrities had their fair share of odd first jobs.
This certainly affects the odds by making the rest of the betting field profitable. Their difference lies therein: in exacta, you must specify which runner should finish first and which runner should finish second. In quinella, both runners can be interchangeable.
Jimmy Mayon (MBA, BSEE) is a technologist with an enthusiasm for Horse Racing. During the last 25 years he has been managing banking and online transaction processing technologies for private and public sectors. Dutching calculators that perform the intricate math behind this system are often available for free from different website in the Internet; one of which can be found at http://www.premierturfclub.com. There are four different kinds of Dutch betting you can do at the PTC website, namely: win, daily double, exacta and quinella. Early daily double means placing wagers on races 1 and 2.
As of September this year, Premier Turf Club or PTC has upgraded its real-time odds Dutching system, making it easier to place wagers on your favorite runners. Rolling daily double means having your pick of runners from any of two consecutive races. The software or the recently upgraded odds Dutch calculator will do the rest for you. The Dutching bet offers the bettor a higher potential Win Frequency or WF. Today he specializes in open source development using Java, PHP, Linux, and MySQL.
The term Odds Dutching or simply Dutching was coined after a fervent horse race enthusiast named Arthur Flegenheimer who also went, for some unknown reason, with the equally puzzling moniker of Dutch Schultz. Dutch wins have, as a rule, lower profit margins on a race to race basis. You can simply check off the horses you want to include in your Dutch “set,” specify the amount of your wager and set a minimum amount as your return of investment or ROI. Exactas and quinella work with almost the same principle: you have to pick the first two finishing horses. A true Dutching wager would have to be an $8 bet on Entry # 1 and a $7 bet on Entry # 2; the return in both cases is $28. You can also have combination bets in any daily double wager. For example, you are playing Entry # 1 at 5-2 and Entry # 2 at 3-1, a Dutching chart can show you that the $2 return is $7.00 and on # 2 is $8.00. In order to win, your must pick the winning horse in each of these races. The Dutching process calculates the correct winning bet on each selection so that the return is the same if any of the bets wins. Basically, Dutching is a form of wage placing that stretches the risk of losing, by betting on more than one “runner” or horse in a race or event.
This kind of wagering strategy can pay enough dividends when bettors successfully reduce potential winners of an event to a select few; or when information about the runners not expected to perform well does not reach the other bettors. Likewise, late daily double means placing wagers on the last two races of the day. This method, however, is very popular among bettors who are interested in making money consistently and over the long haul; rather than just one win at one race at one event. . As a result, the profit on that $15 wager ($7 + $8) is $13 or roughly 86% of your initial investment.
Daily double entails picking the winning runner in two consecutive races
“People should book their hotel rooms in Atlantic City for the Super Bowl now because there won’t be any available in February.”
Information from ESPN.com’s David Purdum and The Associated Press is included in this report. branch of William Hill agreed to be the exclusive provider of sports betting at Monmouth Park, but is taking a wait-and-see approach.
Casino executives did not immediately respond to requests for comment on Christie’s action.
Monmouth Park, a thoroughbred track in Oceansport, New Jersey, has been outspoken that it will take the lead once sports betting became legal.
“Victory at last!” said state Sen. Like others, we recognize that legalized sports betting is inevitable, and will be a good outcome for customers, states and the sports leagues.
But those actions ran up against the 1992 Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, enacted by Congress to restrict betting on sports to a few states. District Court,” William Hill U.S. “The motion simply would clarify and formalize that authority and give clear guidance to casinos and racetracks waiting to open a sports pool in New Jersey.”
His action, through the state attorney general’s office, is likely to be challenged by the professional and collegiate sports leagues that fought New Jersey’s efforts to overturn a ban on sports betting in all but four states. Supreme Court declined to hear New Jersey’s appeal in June, saying, “You know, that’s the way it goes.”
The park built a sports bar last year that was designed to be transformed into a sports book quickly if sports betting were legalized.
The NFL had no comment when reached by ESPN.com. Rachel Ryan, a spokeswoman for the Meadowlands Racetrack said Monday that the track has no plans to offer sports betting now.
“We are reviewing the Attorney General’s directive and the motion filed in U.S. Chris Christie’s administration issued a directive Monday allowing the state’s casinos and racetracks to offer sports betting, a move likely to be challenged in court by sports leagues.
N.J. New Jersey missed a 1991 deadline in the law that would have allowed sports betting in Atlantic City.
The move is a turnaround for Christie, who initially seemed resigned to defeat once the U.S. That effort ended with the U.S. Other leagues and the NCAA did not immediately return messages Monday.
He said he does not expect sports betting to begin until a court rules that it is legal.
ATLANTIC CITY, N.J. Jennifer Beck, a Republican who represents the area where Monmouth Park resides, said Monday that she would like to see the track begin taking bets as soon as this upcoming weekend, but wants to see the reaction from the sports leagues.
“That to some degree will dictate how the race tracks and casinos move forward,” Beck told ESPN.
“Based on the arguments of the sports leagues and the United States Department of Justice, the 3rd Circuit has already ruled that New Jersey can carry out sports wagering as described in today’s statewide directive,” the governor’s office wrote in a statement. State Sen. The seaside resort has already lost three of the 12 casinos with which it began this year, and a fourth one is due to shut its doors next week; about 8,000 casino workers will have lost their jobs since January.. CEO Joe Asher said in a statement. Christie said at the time disagreed with the court decision but feels the law is “sacrosanct.”
The professional football, baseball, basketball and hockey leagues, as well as the National Collegiate Athletic Association, all opposed New Jersey’s effort to legalize sports betting, saying it could give the appearance that the integrity of the games has been compromised.
Lesniak said he expects the leagues to challenge the move, but predicted: “They don’t have any arguments left to make. Nevada has allowed betting on sports for more than 60 years, and Delaware, Montana and Oregon have at times permitted more limited betting. Bets wouldn’t have been taken on games involving New Jersey colleges or college games played in the state.
The governor says sports betting is legal under previous federal rulings as long as wagers don’t involve a collegiate game played in New Jersey or a New Jersey college team elsewhere in the country.
The move came hours before Christie was to convene a closed-door summit on the future of Atlantic City. Raymond Lesniak, one of the legislature’s strongest supporters of sports betting.
The governor said he took his cue from previous federal court rulings that found that nothing in New Jersey law prohibits the casinos and horse racing tracks from offering sports betting.
Voters in New Jersey overwhelmingly endorsed legal sports betting in a nonbinding referendum in 2011. Supreme Court declining to hear the case.
Dennis Drazin, an attorney and adviser to the New Jersey Thoroughbred Horseman and Monmouth Park, told ESPN in early September that he believes the track could have an operating sports book within three weeks after legalization.
A month ago, Christie vetoed a bill that would have pushed New Jersey to circumvent the federal ban on gambling on professional and college sports. In light of our significant investment at Monmouth Park, we are happy that it appears racetracks and casinos in New Jersey will be taking sports bets sooner rather than later.”
In addition to the directive, Christie also had the state file a motion in federal court asking a judge to clarify or modify a February 2013 ruling that blocks a licensing program New Jersey had passed for sports betting in the state.
The U.S. “Obviously, this is a significant development. This is all over but the shouting.”
Christie suggested casinos and tracks could start offering betting immediately, but it’s not clear that will happen. — Gov. State lawmakers soon enacted a law to allow for betting at tracks and in casinos
Easy reading for middle school interests, this nine-book series even earns high reviews from other parents of struggling readers.
The Diary of a Wimpy Kid series does not necessarily fall under the graphic novel category, but its illustrated format does not automatically categorize it with regular novels. Characters deal with middle school topics but the reading level is lower, around fourth grade.
Visual readers who enjoy comics are likely fans of graphic novels. This books with a second grade readability is still popular up to fifth grade.
. Krosoczka created The Lunch Lady and the Cyborg Substitute and has a complete series. Jarrett J. These full-length novels are complete stories that are illustrated in which the pictures are important to the telling of the story.
Superhero comics such as Marvel Comics have created hardcover stories to read out to this kind of audience.
The Bone series by Jeff Smith is another example of graphic novel that entice struggling readers who want to read within their interest level. The same is true for James Patterson’s Middle School or I Funny series. It is still an enjoyable read, especially for middle schoolers who can relate to the main character Greg Heffley’s adjustment to school or anyone who wants a fun perspective of school and family life. Other superheros have come in other forms, such as the lunch ladies behind the cafeteria counter